Brahmi: Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects + Ayurvedic Uses Of Bacopa Monnieri

Brahmi: Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects + Ayurvedic Uses Of Bacopa Monnieri

The Ayurveda Experience August 13, 2019

Here, we take a look at Brahmi, its Ayurvedic uses, benefits, and side effects. We also take a look at its Ayurvedic applications, appropriate dosages, and compare it with a similar herb known as gotu kola.

What Is Brahmi?

Brahmi, also known botanically as Bacopa monnieri, is a very well-known Ayurvedic herb used to improve memory, concentration, and intelligence.

Brahmi is a Sanskrit word derived from the words brahma or brahman. According to Hindu mythology, brahma is the creator of the universe.

It is said that lord brahma is responsible for all creative forces in the world.

The word brahmanin Hinduism connotes the highest universal principal (also called the ultimate reality). Brahmi literally means the energy/wisdom of Brahma.1

Indian pennywort, thyme-leafed gratiola, water hyssop or herb of grace are some of the other common names for brahmi.

Brahmi has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Either by itself or with a combination of other herbs, brahmihas long been an important medicine in Ayurveda.

In renowned Ayurvedic medical texts like the Dravyaguna Vijnana (herbal pharmacology), brahmi has been categorized under medhyaherbs.

Medhyaherbs are used in Ayurveda as nootropics i.e. cognition enhancers to improve memory, intelligence, and other neurological functions.

herbs brain tonic

In Ayurveda, brahmi has been described to have a wide variety of uses and benefits.

Brahmihas also been extensively mentioned in the Ayurvedic medical text Charaka Samhitaand Sushruta Samhita. A few examples from these classical textbooks have been mentioned here.

Brahmihas been categorized under balya maha kashyaya, sangya sathapana maha kashyaya and praja sathapana maha kashayayaby renowned Ayurvedic scholar Charaka.

Balya maha kashyaya is a group of herbs which provide strength and immunity.2

Sangya sathappan maha kashayaya is a group of herbs which help in preventing unconsciousness i.e. improving alertness and influence the quality of consciousness.3

Praja sathapana maha kashaya is a group of herbs which are helpful in stabilizing pregnancy.4

Brahmi is used in a wide variety of Ayurvedic formulations. Brahmi ghrita, brahmi taila(oil) and brahmi churna(powder) are some of the commonly available preparations.

The freshly extracted juice of brahmiis also used. Brahmiis also available as capsules and syrups. In Ayurveda, brahmi has been described to have a wide variety of uses and benefits.

Some other important Ayurvedic formulations containing brahmiare saraswat arishta, saraswata churna,and smriti sagar rasa.

Brahmi is not only a part of Ayurvedic formulations, but it is also used in a variety of food products.

There are various commonly available food products (depending on your location) including beverages and health drinks which contain brahmias an ingredient.

Some beverages even have brahmias the primary ingredient, while some have it mixed with fruits and other ingredients.

Besides these, brahmi granules are also available which can be taken after mixing with milk. Brahmigranules are available in various flavored forms as well.

Brahmiis also used as an ingredient in custard powders, health foods, jellies, biscuits, nutrition bars, and cereals.

Differences Between Brahmi and Gotu Kola

brahmi benefits uses side effects Ayurvedic

Gotu kola, another herb from popular Ayurvedic texts is also known as mandukaparni. Interestingly, it is mistakenly considered to be brahmi in the norther regions of India.

Many herbalists often mislabel gotu kola as brahmi but the plants are totally different. Gotu kola is Centella asiatica whereas brahmiis Bacopa monnieri.

The comparative phytochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic properties of these two herbs are also distinct.

The Ayurvedic Formulary of India has also clarified that brahmiis Bacopa monnieri and gotu kolaor mandukaparniis Centella asiatic. Classical Ayurvedic textbooks have also mentioned them as separate herbs.

However, just like brahmi, gotu kolais also categorized under the medhya(nootropic) category of herbs.

Gotu kolais mistakenly known as brahmiin some regions of the country because the literal meaning of brahmiin Hindi/Sanskrit is anything that increases intelligence, memory, and general cognition.

The reason these herbs are confused with each other is probably that both are used as nootropics (cognition enhancers).

Botanical Description of Brahmior Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa monnieri is a small, soft, perennial, creeping and non-aromatic herb.

It has numerous branches which particularly grow in wetlands and marshy places.

The plant can generally grow up to 6 inches in height.

However, it can grow up to 3 feet in height. Branches creep horizontally and cover the ground.

The leaves are small, oblong, and green in color. The leaves are coin-shaped and grow in a cluster of two to three. The leaves are placed alternatively on the hairy stem. The leaves are succulent in nature and are 4-6 mm thick.

The flowers are small and actinomorphic. Flowers are light pink or bluish-white or light purple in color. Flowers contain 4-5 petals. Flowers grow in summer season and later on fruit grows.

In India and other tropical countries, it grows naturally in wet soil, shallow water, and marshes. It grows naturally around wells, rivers, and ponds where water is regularly available.

Brahmiis also found as a weed in rice fields.

See Also: Brahmi Gritham Is An Effective Ayurvedic Medicine For ADHD In Children

The herb can be found at elevations from sea level to altitudes of approximately 4000 feet.

It is also called the water aquarium plant because it grows in water. The propagation of plants is often achieved through cuttings.

Brahmi is an indigenous plant which is found throughout the country in the damp and marshy areas of tropical regions.

Brahmi is also found in India’s neighboring countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Taiwan, and Vietnam. It is also found in US states like Florida, Hawaii, and some other southern states where it can grow in damp conditions (by a pond or bog garden).

Brahmi can be grown hydroponically. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Here, plants are grown using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.

This is one of the benefits of brahmi, you can grow it yourself!

Sanskrit Synonyms Of Brahmi With Meanings

Aindari:It is called aindaribecause it gives the body energy and power. It is also called aindaribecause it grows in “watery land”.5

Ayurvedic Properties of Brahmi 6

brahmi benefits uses side effects Ayurvedic

Rasa or Taste:Tikta or bitter.

Guna or Qualities:Laghu or light.

Viryaor Potency:Ushnaor hot.

Vipakaor Taste Conversion After Digestion:Katuor pungent.

Prabhava or Special Effect: The prabhavaof brahmiis medhya (cognition enhancement)

Effect on Dosha:Bacopa monnieri is Kapha dosha shamak and Vata dosha shamak. It pacifies excessive Kapha and Vata doshabecause of its ushna viryaor hot potency.

Parts Used:Panchangaor whole plant.7

Dosage:Swarasaor freshly extracted juice- 10-20 ml.7

Next, we’ll discuss the various Ayurvedic uses and benefits of brahmi.

Ayurvedic Benefits And Uses Of Brahmi 6,7

  • Brahmi has anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Brahmi has analgesic or pain-relieving properties.
  • Brahmi is a natural detoxifying herb.
  • The paste of brahmihas is applied to inflamed areas to relieve pain and inflammation. Its paste is also sometimes applied in cases of poisoning.
  • The paste of brahmi after heating is been applied over the chest like a balm to relieve cough, cold, and other respiratory issues like asthma.
  • Brahmi aids intelligence and memory.
  • Brahmi is an anti-convulsant. It is also helpful in cases of mania.
  • Brahmi is useful in improving the digestive strength and aids proper digestion of food.
  • Brahmi is also useful in ama dosha(amais an Ayurvedic concept related to undigested food caused by weak digestion).
  • Brahmi has laxative properties.
  • Brahmi has blood purifying properties due to tikta rasaor bitter taste. Brahmi is useful in many circulatory disorders.
  • Brahmi is good for the heart and acts as a cardiac tonic.
  • Brahmi is helpful in improving the quality of voice.
  • Brahmi is helpful in speech impairments.
  • Brahmi has diuretic properties, therefore, it is also useful in dysuria (difficulty in passing urine).
  • Brahmi is useful in menstrual problems like dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea.
  • Brahmi is helpful in stabilizing the pregnancy and useful in boosting infertility.
  • Brahmi increases sweating in the body.
  • Brahmi is helpful in fever.
  • In Vataj Kaphaj jwara(fever occurs due to an imbalance of Vata doshaand Kapha dosha), paste of brahmiis mixed with onion and sand. Then a bundle, also called poltis in Hindi, are made to administer swedanatherapy (swedanais sweating therapy) to relieve Vataj Kaphaj jwara .
  • Brahmi is useful in a variety of skin disorders.
  • Brahmi is helpful in relieving itching.
  • Brahmi is also useful in general debility.

Bioactive Constituents Of Bacopa Monnieri

Various phytochemical studies have shown that the main chemical constituents of brahmiare alkaloids brahmine, herpestine, nicotine, saponin, monierin, hersaponin.

Bacosides A1, A2, A3, and B, bacogenins A1 to A4, steroids triterpene, and bacosine. Apart from the Bacopa saponins A–F, three new triterpenoid glycosides, Bacopasides III–V have also been shown.8

Saponins are the main active constituents of extract of brahmi and are responsible for most of its pharmacological actions.9

The active ingredients of extract of Bacopa monnieri are enlisted below in table.9

Chemical groups Contents
Saponins Bacoside A, bacoside B, bacopasaponins, D-mannitol, acid A, monnierin
Flavonoids Apigenin, luteonin
Alkaloids Brahmine, herpestine, hydrocotyline
Glycosides Asiaticoside, thanakunicide
Phytochemicals Betulinic acid, betulic acid, wogonin, oroxindin, stigmastarol, β-sitosterol
Sapogenin Jujubacogenin, pseudojujubacogenin
Other constituents Brahmic acid, brahamoside, brahminoside, isobrahmic acid

Nutrient Composition Of Brahmi 10

Component Amount (per 100 gram)
Moisture 88.4 gram
Protein 2.1 gram
Fat 0.6 gram
Carbohydrates 5.9 gram
Crude fiber 1.05 gram
Ash 1.9 gram
Calcium 202 mg
Phosphorus 16 mg
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) 63 mg
Nicotinic acid 0.3 mg
Iron 7.8 mg
Energy 38 cal


In general, brahmi is well tolerated by most individuals. While brahmi has its own uses and benefits, the most common side effect seen in some people is gastrointestinal distress. The main symptoms of gastrointestinal distress including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

If you want to take brahmifor its above-mentioned benefits, consult a qualified Ayurvedic practitioner or general physician first.


  1. Brahmi: herb of grace,
  2. Charak Samhita, part-1, Sutra Sathan, 4/7, page no.-72, by Aacharya Vidyadhar Shukla and Professor Ravidutt, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, 2017.
  3. Charak Samhita, Sutra Sathan, 4/48, page no.-77, by Aacharya Vidyadhar Shukla and Professor Ravidutt, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, 2017.
  4. Charak Samhita, Sutra Sathan, 4/49, page no.-77, by Aacharya Vidyadhar Shukla and Professor Ravidutt, Chauamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, 2017.
  5. Dravyaguna Vijnana by Aacharya Priyavrat Sharma, Volume 2, page no.6, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, 2017
  6. Dravyaguna Vijnana by Aacharya Priyavrat Sharma, Volume 2, page no.7, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, 2017
  7. Dravyaguna Vijnana by Aacharya Priyavrat Sharma, Volume 2, page no.8, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, 2017
  8. Kumar, Navneet et al. “Efficacy of Standardized Extract of Bacopa monnieri(Bacognize®) on Cognitive Functions of Medical Students: A Six-Week, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM vol. 2016 (2016): 4103423. doi:10.1155/2016/4103423
  9. Chaudhari, Kaustubh S et al. “Neurocognitive Effect of Nootropic Drug Brahmi(Bacopa monnieri) in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Annals of neurosciences vol. 24,2 (2017): 111-122. doi:10.1159/000475900
  10. Patel, Saurabh et al. “Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri) as Functional Food Ingredient in Food Processing Industry.” Research Gate, May 2018


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